GLOSSARY


LESIONS

Acral Naevus: An acral naevus is a mole which appears on the sloes of the feet palms of the hands or in the nail beds.

ACANTHOMA

Clear cell acanthoma: Clear cell acanthoma is a rare non-cancerous (benign) skin lesion frequently located on the lower legs and may appears as a single flat or raised lesion.


ACRAL

Acral naevus: An acral naevus is a mole which appears on the soles of the feet, palms of the hands or in the nail beds.

Acral congenital-type mole: Congenital means that a lesion has been present from birth or appeared very soon after birth.


ATYPICAL

Atypical naevus: An atypical naevus is a mole which does not have regular or even features, they may have some asymmetry, irregular borders or uneven colour. The atypical features can be minimal or very pronounced and these are described as 'mildly', 'moderately' or 'highly' atypical. Generally individual atypical moles are considered benign but the presence of multiple atypical moles indicates that an individual may have a higher risk of developing melanoma.

Dysplastic naevus: A dysplastic naevus is another term for an atypical mole (naevus). It is a benign mole with irregular or 'atypical' features. An individual with many dysplastic moles is considered to be at higher risk of developing melanoma.


BLUE / VENOUS LAKE BLUE

Blue naevus: A blue naevus is a less common type of mole which is formed in the deeper layers of the skin and usually has a strong concentration of the pigment melanin. This is seen on the skin surface as a dark blue or black. they can be flat or raised. Although these moles tend to be regular in appearance with no atypical features or history of change, they are often monitored because of their unusual appearance.

Consider regressing blue mole: Regressing is a term which describes a mole or other lesion which is starting to disappear (involuting) from the skin surface. Regression of a mole is not common but neither is it a rare occurrence and it is generally considered a benign feature.

Enlarging naevus: An enlarging or growing lesion means that the lesion has been observed to increase in diameter. Generally it is recommended that changing lesions are monitored or, other investigations may be recommended.


NAEVUS/MELANOCYTIC LESION

Melanocytic lesion: Melanocytic means a lesion which is composed of normal skin cells called melanocytes, these cells are responsible for producing the pigment melanin in response to sun exposure and we see this on the skin as a 'tan'. Most melanocytic lesions on the skin are benign; e.g, moles and freckles. If melanocytes develop abnormally this is called a melanoma.

New naevus: A naevus is the medical word for a common mole. Moles are benign (not cancerous) and are made up of a collection of normal skin cells called melanocytes. Depending where the collection of melanocytes cluster in the skin, a mole can be flat or raised and it can be any single colour from pink, tan, brown, blue or black.

Pigmented lesion: A pigmented lesion is one which is observed to have a single colour different from the surrounding skin, pigmented lesions can be tan, brown blue or black. A pigmented lesion with single colour is generally benign.

Benign lesion: The word benign means a lesion is not cancerous and has no cancerous features.

Benign mole with a dermal component: A mole which is identified to have a 'dermal component' means that part of the mole is located in the deeper layer of the skin which makes the mole slightly raised on the surface of the skin. Generally such moles are benign.

Changing melanocytic lesion: A changing lesion is one which has been observed to have developed over time. Generally it is recommended that changing lesions are monitored or, other investigations may be recommended.

Inflammatory lesion: An inflammatory lesion is one which is showing signs of an irritated reaction, normally seen as redness around the lesion or sometimes itching or soreness. This can be due to injury to the lesion or other reasons not related to skin cancer. There are times however when a persistent inflammatory reaction can be one of the clues to a skin cancer. If a lesion is showing inflammation or irritation for more than a month, it is recommended that it should be checked.

Irritated lesion/mole: An irritated lesion/mole is normally seen as redness around the border or sometimes felt as itching or soreness. This can be due to injury to the lesion or other reasons not related to skin cancer. There are times however when a persistent inflammatory reaction can be one of the clues to a skin cancer. If a lesion is showing inflammation or irritation for more than a month, it is recommended that it should be checked.

Vascular naevus: A vascular naevus is a congenital lesion composed of blood vessels. It is benign.

Ockade naevus: A cockade naevus is a benign mole with a different colour or shade at the centre than around the edge. Sometimes the centre can also be raised. It is likened to the shape of a rosette.

Collision lesion: A collision lesion is where two types of lesions are combined together or closely sharing the same space; e.g. a mole colliding with a seborroeic keratosis.

Irritated compound mole: A compound naevus is a common benign mole with regular features.

Congenital melanocytic naevus: A congenital naevus is a mole which is present at birth or appears soon after birth. There can be varying sizes of congenital moles which are classified as small, medium, large or giant. They can also have a varied colour and appearance. They can be flat or may have raised areas and sometimes may be hairy.

Excoriated lesion: An excoriated lesion/mole is one which has been scratched or injured causing a graze.

Eclipse naevus: See Cockade nevus/mole.

Junctional naevus: A junctional naevus is a common benign mole, generally with regular features.

Meyerson naevus: A Meyerson naevus is a benign mole which is surrounded by eczema or dermatitis.

Recurrent naevus: A recurrent naevus is a mole which has regrown after it was treated or excised. Normally recurrence occurs if the mole is not completely removed and is not a feature of skin cancer where it was established that the mole which had been removed was benign.

So-called spider: A spillus naevus is a mole which has multiple speckled brown dots across the whole surface. It is also called a speckled mole.

Speckled mole: See Spillus naevus.

Spider naevus: A spider naevus or angioma is a benign lesion that is composed of a collection of tiny blood vessels. The colour can range from bright red to purpley-blue.

Spitz naevus: A spitz/spitzoid naevus is an uncommon mole generally seen in children but can grow in adults as well. It has a strong colour and unusual microscopic features. It may appear suddenly grow for a period and then gradually fade. Spitz moles are considered benign but because of their unusual appearance they generally require monitoring or other investigations may be recommended.

Traumatised mole: A traumatised mole is one where the surface of the mole has been damaged due to injury.

Vascular lesion: A vascular lesion is composed of blood vessels. It is benign.


DERMAL NEVUS

Dermal naevus: A dermal naevus is a common benign mole. It is generally raised and soft with regular features.

Post inflammatory hyperpigmented dermal mole: Hyperpigmented means that the mole is dark in colour. Many benign moles are dark in colour.


LENTIGO

Lentigo: A lentigo is a benign pigmented lesion.

Lentiginous mole: a lentiginous mole or naevus is a benign pigmented mole.

Solar lentigo: Solar lentigo is a benign flat pigmented skin lesion which has developed due to sun exposure.

Actinic lentigo: Actinic lentigo is a benign, generally regular, flat pigmented skin lesion which has developed due to ultra violet radiation (UVr) exposure. Most UVr exposure is from the sun.

Labial lentigo: Labial lentigo is a benign flat pigmented lesion located on the lip.

Labial melanotic lentigo: Labial melanocytic lentigo is a benign flat pigmented lesion located on the lip which is composed of normal skin cells called melanocytes.

Lentigo simplex: Lentigo simplex is a benign, pigmented, flat, regularly shaped lesion found on the skin it is commonly associated with sun exposure skin damage.


LENTIGINES

Solar lentigines: Lentigines are benign regularly shaped pigmented lesions.


INK SPOT LENTIGO

Ink spot lentigo: A ink spot lentigo is a benign flat irregularly shaped lesion which is dark brown or black in colour. It is so called because the lesion looks like ink has been 'flicked' on the skin.

Involuting ink spot lentigo: An involuting lesion is one which is slowly disappearing from the skin. This is generally considered a benign development.


FIBROUS LESION/PAPULE

Fibrous lesion: A fibrous lesion is a firm lesion which is normally raised but may also be flat. Such lesions are commonly caused by scar tissue

Fibrous papule of nose: Papule is the medical term used to describe a moderately raised lesion.

Fibrous papule of the nose: Macule is the medical term used to describe a flat lesion.

Nodule is the term used to describe a raised lesion.


KERATOACANTHOMA

Keratoacanthoma: A keratoacanthoma is a rapidly enlarging lesion located on sun damage skin which develops very quickly then gradually shrinks. It is associated with keratinocytic squamous cell skin cancer but is not considered to metastasise (become cancerous) and is sometimes called a 'pseudo' skin cancer.

Consider excoriated keratoacanthoma: Excoriated means the lesion has been irritated by continuous picking which can cause a sore.


PAPILLOMA

Papilloma: A papilloma is a benign lesion which grows above the surface of the skin, It is also known as a papule.

Papillomatous mole: A papillomatous mole is a common benign mole which is raised above the skin.

Papillomatous naevus: A papillomatous naevus is a benign mole with a different colour or shade at the centre than around the edge. It is likened to the shape of a rosette.


SPINDLE CELL OF REED

Spindle cell of reed: A spindle cell of reed is a pigmented, irregularly shaped mole which has a very specific microscopic structure. These moles are considered benign but because of their unusual appearance they generally require monitoring or other investigations may be recommended.


SKIN CONDITIONS


ACTINIC KERATOSIS

Actinic damage: A actinic damage is damage to skin cells cause by Ultra Violet radiation generally due to exposure to the sun.

Actinic keratosis: A actinic keratosis is seen on sun damaged skin as flat, rough scaly patches. In early stages the patches come and go but as the condition progresses the patches become constant and may ulcerate (form scabs). The condition is considered pre cancerous as SCC may develop in areas where actinic keratosis is present.

Hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis: A hyperkeratotic lesion is one which is flaky or scaly. Hyperkeratosis occurs on many benign skin conditions but may also occur in actinic keratosis or keratinocytic skin cancer.


ACTINIC CHEILITIS

Actinic cheilitis: Actinic cheilitis is patchy dryness on the lips due to excessive sun exposure.


BOWENOID LESION

Bowenoid lesion: A bowenoid lesion is one where abnormal cells have developed and is associated with early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

Keratotic bowen disease - suspected: Keratotic means the lesion is dry and scaly.


DERMATITIS

Dermatitis - possible: Dermatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the skin. It is not skin cancer and can be treated by your doctor


DERMATOFIBROMA

Dermatofibroma: A dermatofibroma is a benign lesion which is composed of scar tissue. It occurs due to an injury such as an insect bite which has caused inflammation.

Scar: A scar is fibrous tissue which is produced by the body in response to an injury (including surgery) and enables healing to occur.

Keloid scar: A keloid scar is a permanent overgrowth of scar tissue which has occurred in response to an injury. The overgrowth may require treatment by a doctor.

Hypertrophic scar: A hypertrophic scar is a temporary overgrowth of scar tissue which has occurred in response to injury, especially burns. The overgrowth will flatten gradually as the scar matures.

Ice pick scar: Ice pick scars are also called pock marks and develop as a result of acne, they are common on the face, upper back and shoulders.


ECZEMA

Eczema: Eczema is a benign inflammatory condition which is composed of dry scaly patches that can be extensive. Eczema requires treated by your doctor


FOLLICULITIS

Folliculitis: A folliculitis is a benign condition where hair follicles become inflamed generally due to a fungal condition. The affected skin has multiple white headed pimples and is inflamed. Folliculitis requires treatment by your doctor.


HYPERPLASIA

Sebaceous hyperplasia: Sebaceous hyperplasia is a benign condition of the tiny sebaceous glands in the skin of the face.


KERATOTIC LESION

Keratosis: Keratosis is a benign feature present in many lesions which appears as a scaly plaque.


SEBORRHEIC KERATOSIS / MILIA

Seborrheic keratosis: Seborrheic keratosis or Seb K is a slow growing benign lesion where there is a thickening of the surface of the skin. The appearance is warty, waxy and dull and may be various colours, growing thicker over time. Seborrhoeic keratosis are common on older age.

Milial cysts: Milial or milia-like cyst are a feature of seborrhoeic keratosis. They are tiny white shiny dost seen in the surface of the Seb K lesion.


TYPES OF CANCERS


BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

Basal cell carcinoma: A basal cell carcinoma is a non melanoma or keratinocytic skin cancer. BCC can be flat or raised and are generally pink but may also have some pigment. A BCC requires treatment by your doctor.

Nodular basal cell carcinoma: A nodular basal cell carcinoma is a non melanoma or keratinocytic skin cancer. Nodular BCC are raised and are generally pink. A BCC requires treatment by your doctor.

Pigmented bcc: A pigmented bcc is a a non melanoma or keratinocytic skin cancer. Pigmented BCC are generally flat and some colour (often black or grey) is seen within the lesion. A BCC requires treatment by your doctor.

Recurrent basal cell carcinoma: A recurrent lesion is one which has been excised or treated but has since reoccurred along the area of excision or treatment.

Ulcerated basal cell carcinoma: An ulcerated lesion is one which has developed an open sore or a scab.


SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Squamous cell carcinoma: A squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a non melanoma or keratinocytic skin cancer which has a firm consistency and are generally raised and tender. SCC have to treated by your doctor

Probable squamous cell carcinoma in situ: In Situ means that a lesion is still in its earliest possible stage and the abnormal cells have not extended beyond the wall of the original lesion.

Keratotic squamous cell carcinoma - possible: A keratotic squamous cell carcinoma has a thickening on the skin surface.

Bowen disease: Bowen disease is an early stage keratinocytic skin cancer. It is normally flat with a pink scaly surface. Bowens disease needs to be treated by your doctor.

Pigmented Bowen's disease: A pigmented Bowens disease is an early stage keratinocytic skin cancer. It is normally flat with a scaly surface and pink and black/dark brown/grey colouration. Bowens disease needs to be treated by your doctor.


MELANOMA

Melanoma: A melanoma is a cancerous growth composed of skin cells called melanocytes which have grown abnormally. Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer as it has increased potential to spread within the body.

Melanoma in situ: A melanoma in situ is an early stage skin cancer which is still contained and has not started to grow beyond the boundary of the lesion.

Non melanoma skin cancer: A non melanoma skin cancer is also called keratinocytic skin cancer. The most commons non melanoma skin cancers are BCC and SCC.

Lentigo maligna: A lentigo maligna is a slow growing superficial melanoma which has not invaded the deeper layers of the skin. It commonly appears on sun damaged areas, especially the face.

Lentigo maligna melanoma - suspected: A lentigo maligna melanoma is a slow growing melanoma which has invaded the deeper layers of the skin. It commonly appears on sun damaged areas such as the face of older individuals. It has to be treated by your doctor.

Hypomelanotic melanoma - possible: A hypomelanotic lesion is one which has very little colour.

Nodular melanoma: A nodular melanoma is a melanoma lesion which is raised above the skin and, has also grown into the deeper layers of the skin where it has a high potential to spread around the body. It has to be treated by your doctor as a matter of urgency.

Amelanotic melanoma: A amelanotic melanoma is non pigmented (pink or red) melanoma. They can be flat or raised and it has to be treated as a matter of urgency.


MISCELLANEOUS


ACNE/PIMPLE/PAPULE

Acne: A acne is a benign condition where the follicles of the skin get plugged with oils and cause pimples


ANGIOMA/HAEMANGIOMA

Angioma: A angioma or haemangioma is a benign growth composed of blood vessels.

Cherry angioma: A cherry angioma is a benign lesion which is composed of a collection of blood vessels. They are also called Campbell de Morgan spot.


ANGIOKERATOMA

Angiokeratoma: A angiokeratoma is a benign lesion composed of small pigmented spots.


ACCESSORY NIPPLE

Accessory nipple: A accessory nipple is a benign lesion and requires no treatment.


APOCRINE HIDROCYSTOMA

Apocrine hidrocystoma: A apocrine hidrocystoma is a rare benign tumour of the sweat glands often located in the head and neck.


BRUISE / HAEMATOMA

Haematoma: A haematoma occurs to the skin due to localised bleeding occuring from injury or illness. It is visible as dark red purplish colouration which changes to green/yellow as the area heals.


CALICINOSIS

Non specific-calicnosis: Formation of calcium deposits on soft tissues.


CHONDRODERMATITIS

Chondrodermatitis nodularis: A chondrodermatitis nodularis is a condition where an inflammatory response causes a small nodule to develop on the cartilage of the ear pinna.


COMEDO

Comedo: A comedo is a benign pimple or blackhead.

Cutaneous horn:
A cutaneous horn is a firm bone-like projection composed of compacted skin cells and often develops as a result of SCC.


CYST

Cyst: An epidermal cyst is a benign lesion which has a capsule filled with a collection of cells and sebum.


FIBROMA

Fibroma - suspected: A fibroma is a benign growth coposed of fibrous and connective tissue.


LICHEN

Lichen planus like keratosis: A lichen planus usually appears as purplish, itchy, flat bumps that develop over several weeks.


MELANONYCHIA

Melanonychia: A melanonychia is a benign feature seen on finger and toenails which consists of parallel pigmented lines.


MOLLUSCUM

Molluscum contagiosum: A molluscum contagiosum is a benign condition of spdermal papules caused by a virus.


MELANOSIS

Hypermelanosis: A hypermelanosis is a benign mole with a different colour or shade at the centre than around the edge. It is likened to the shape of a rosette.

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